Allergic Diseases

Archive for February, 2008

Question: What is the major disadvantage of the adaptive immune system?

Wednesday, February 6th, 2008

Answer: The disadvantage of the adaptive immunes response is that the required expansion process takes time after the first encounter with antigen, in some cases more than 2 weeks. Many infectious agents can cause death or severe disability in less time than it takes the adaptive immune system to mobilize a specific response. This disadvantage […]

Posted in Allergy and Immunology Questions and Answer | No Comments »


Question: What is the major advantage of the adaptive immune system?

Wednesday, February 6th, 2008

Answer: The distinct advantage of the adaptive immune system is its ability to select B cells and T cells that have high-affinity receptors for new antigens and to stimulate them to replicate and provide a specific, fine-tuned response to foreign invaders. Reference:  Abbas AK, Lichtman AH: Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 5th ed. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, […]

Posted in Allergy and Immunology Questions and Answer | No Comments »


Question: What are the major components of the adaptive immune system? How do they work?

Tuesday, February 5th, 2008

Answer: The adaptive immune system includes elements such as the B lymphocytes that make antibodies and T lymphocytes that provide the effector elements of antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses. Elements of the adaptive immune system display a large repertoire (e.g., tens of millions) of specific antigen receptors that are generated by DNA rearrangements. Each lymphocyte and […]

Posted in Allergy and Immunology Questions and Answer | No Comments »


Question: What are the major components of the innate immune system?

Tuesday, February 5th, 2008

Answer: Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK) cells, complement proteins, and acute-phase reactants. All of these elements have germline-encoded receptors that recognize motifs commonly present on microbes. Reference:  Rich RR, Fleisher TA, Shearer WT, et al: Clinical Immunology, Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 2001.

Posted in Allergy and Immunology Questions and Answer | No Comments »


Question: Which is the first line of defense against infection?

Tuesday, February 5th, 2008

Answer: Innate immunity is the first line of defense against infection because its elements are already present in the circulation and can respond immediately to microbial invasion. However, the innate system has no memory; on subsequent exposure to the same antigen, the response is no greater, no faster, and no more effective than it was […]

Posted in Allergy and Immunology Questions and Answer | No Comments »


Question: Name the two major divisions of the immune system. Which is older?

Tuesday, February 5th, 2008

Answer: The immune system can be considered to have two major divisions: the innate immune system and the adaptive or cognitive immune system. The innate immune system is phylogenetically older. Reference: Adkinson NF, Yunginger A, Busse W, et al (eds): Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice, 6th ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 2004.

Posted in Allergy and Immunology Questions and Answer | No Comments »